I updated an old Galaxy S (the old original i9000) to CyanogenMod 10.1 (Android 4.2.2) which, by the way, works excellently in this old smartphone.
However, when uploading the update file cm-….zip with adb push, I always got an error:
adb protocol fault (no status)
When I checked logs, it seemed that the Gnome modem manager found the device as a potential modem (as it is) and continously, about once per 10 seconds, checked if the smartphone was interested in acting like a modem.
This modem check disturbed the adb push so that it caused protocol fault.
If you upload small files, the error goes likely unnoticed. But you can not upload new Android >100MB without protocol error.
You can not do anything in the telephone recovery mode, so the only thing to do is to stop the modem manager.
I managed to stop modem manager by:
sudo stop modemmanager sudo stop network-manager sudo pkill modem-manager
I have slightly modified Ubuntu 13.10 alpha so something less may work with you. I needed all three.